Friday, January 30, 2015

Black Europeans were in America before African Slaves

The Afro-Americans have a tripart heritage: African slave, Black Native American and Black Europeans. As a result Afro-Americans are not just the descendants of slaves.

In The Souls of Black Folk (1903) W. E. B. Du Bois also specifically mentioned the slave-ship that "first saw the square tower of Jamestown" as an American beginning point (Du Bois 1986, 424) and asked, "Your country? How came it yours? Before the Pilgrims landed we were there" (Du Bois 1986, 545).

" Based on a census taken in March of 1619, there were already 32 blacks (15 men and 17 women) "in the service" of Jamestown planters prior to the August arrival of the Dutch ship.

Some of these Blacks were freemen from Europe. In 1624 John Phillips “a negro, Christened in England 12 years since” testified against a white man.

The presence of Free Black men in Britain was not strange because of the “free” status of Blacks in Britain, back in the 17th Century.


And it really was true that Africans in England were free. Diogo, an African who had been taken to England by an English pirate in 1614, later reported to the Portuguese Inquisition that when he laid foot on English soil, "he immediately became free, because in that reign nobody is a slave." It was not legally possible to be a slave in Tudor and Stuart Britain and the hundreds of black people present in these isles during those centuries were not treated as slaves either. Africans such as Jacques Francis and Edward Swarthye were allowed to testify in court – a privilege denied to slaves in ancient Rome and the American south, as well as to English villeins.

Jan Rodriguez was a free Black sailor working for Dutch merchants. In 1612, he was left behind on Manhattan Island to establish trade with the local native population.

It would appear that many Black Europeans from Spain and Portugal settled in Colonial America.

The Jamestown Census shows that there were 12 Blacks in Jamestown before the 20 Blacks taken to Jamestown by the Dutch.

Moreover, in 1624 John Phillips had been Christened in 1612, this meant that he had been a Black European from Britain.

In summary, the Jamestown Census and life of Phillips prove there were Black Europeans in the English colonies .

Black Native Americans probably introduced Solutrean Culture to America

Researchers have found evidence that Solutrean artifacts have been found on North American sites where Paleo-Native Americans have been found. This has led some researchers to create the so-called Solutrean hypothesis that proposes that ancient America was settled by ancient Europeans.

The proposed Solutrean migration route seems highly unlikely because these early men would have had to brave glaziers and Ice Age tempertures which would have made it impossible to reach North America.


Although a migration from Europe seems highly unlikely 20-30kya because of the Ice Age. Ancient man could have made their way to the Americas directly from Africa which is a shorter distance to the Americas than Europe, and also ancient sailors could have made their way to the Americas on Currents, especially the Gulf Stream, that regularly flow from Africa, to the Americas.


The first Americans Naia, and Luzia date to 12,000 BC were Negroes


NAIA of Mexico


LUZIA of Brazil

Archaeologist have reconstructed the faces of ancient Americans from Brazil and Mexico. These faces are based on the skeletal remains dating back to 12,000BC.

Researchers agree that the first Americans, Naia of Mexico, Luzia of Brazil and Kennewick Man, found near the Columbia River in Washington, were all Negroes. This finding is not so significant because the first Europeans were also Blacks.


It appears that the first Europeans entered Western Europe across the Straits of Gibraltar. These people were Khoisan. The Khoisan took their art and culture to Europe 40kya. Here they contructed the Aurignacian, Grimaldi and Solutrean cultures. Since the first Europeans had come from North Africa, we also find a Solutrean culture in Africa.

Africa is closer to the Americas than Europe. As you can notice from the map above the Currents could have easily carried the Khoisan from Africa to the Americas. This view is supported by the face that most ancient archaeological sites of paleo-Indian habitation are nearer to the Atlantic Ocean, than the Pacific.


In addition in Africa we find the Dafuna boat. The Dafuna boat has been dated to 8000 B.C., the culture associated with the people who built the Dafuna boat date back to 12,000 BC. This would indicate that around the time Kennewick man, Naia and Luzia inhabited the Americas, Khoisan in Africa had the naval technology to have sailed to the Americas.

In summary , the Solutrean artifacts in the Americas probably relate to Khoisan from Africa sailing to America. The fact that these ancient people in Europe, Africa and the Americas indicate that for a considerable period of time the world was dominated by Black or Negro people.


Black Native American Hair Textures

Many Black Native Americans had straight hair.




Other Black Native Americans had kinky hair.



Thursday, January 29, 2015

Many Black Native Americans were sold into Slavery

The DNA does not deny the possibility that 20% of African ancestry is of Native American origin. When Europeans got here there were already Black Native Americans, e.g., the Nanticoke that used Mande numerals.

During slavery many Indians North were sold into slavery. The numerous laws regulating trade in Indian slaves in New England illustrate the extensive nature of the trade. This provided ample opportunies for Indians to mate with slaves. Other NA married free AA, many of European origin.

The Indians from New England down into South Carolina and Virginia, were sold into slavery. In INDIAN SLAVERY IN COLONIAL TIMES WITHIN THE PRESENT LIMITS OF THE UNITED STATES, BY ALMON WHEELER LAUBER (
), we learn that the Black Native American tribes like the Nanticoke and Yamasse were sold into slavery



Eventhough Kittle recognizes less than 10%. The number is much higher. Lets not forget that the Native American (NA) mtDNA haplogroups A2,B2,C1 and D1 are rooted in African L3. For example, the NA haplogroup A2i is represented by the T3308A has a transversion with an insertion of T3308C. This parallels the T3308C transition in the African haplogroup L1b.

Henry Lewis Gates, joked about the fact that many AAs who self identified themselves as having Indian heritage, ended up carrying haplogroup R1-M173. As a result Gates claimed they must have European heritage.

I believe that Africans who carry R1, indicate their Indian heritage. NA people carry R-M173.


The presence of R1, probably denotes the African heritage of many North American Native American populations. Some researchers claim that NA must have European heritage because some carry haplogroup R-M269.

Moreover the majority of Native America (NA) haplogroup R is M-173, not M269. And lets not forget that Khoisan, Pgymy , Fula and etc., carry M269, and in Equatorial Guinea 17% of Africans carry R1b1-P25. This indicates that this y-chromosome was widespread in Africa. And could have be transferred to NA by Pre-Columbian Blacks, Black Europeans or African slaves who mainly came to the U.S., from the Senegambian and Guinea region of West Africa.

As a result, the presence of between 19-22% AA males carrying R1, is probably evidence of their Native American heritage.

Finally there was never extensive intermarriage between Northeastern Native Americans and Europeans so Europeans can not account for the spread of R-M173 among Native Americans .The presence of R1 among NA probally accounts for a high percentage of the 22% of AA that carry this haplogroup. You add these AAs to the 10% that carry the Native American mtDNA, we would probably have 20% or more of AAs that have a NA heritage.


Native Black Americans had their own Writing System

The Black Native Americans were not illiterate. Many of these Blacks continued to use the Vai script to write. The Vai script taken to America by the the Malian explorers led by Abubakari in 1310. They left inscriptions across the United States.



There is constant talk about the Cherokee script.


Although a great deal is made of the invention of the script, in reality it is just a modification of the Vai writing that had been used as a written language in America at least since 1310. You can tell the influence of the Malians on Sequoyah or George Guess. You can look at the African influence on Sequoyah by his head dress which is a Turban.

Mike 111 on the Yamacraw Native Black Americans

Mike 111 on the Yamacraw Indians


Link to full sized picture.

Examiner: British researchers probe mystery of lost Native American artifact.

It is the Rosetta Stone of North America. The English translation of this hand-painted vellum containing a lost Native American writing system, requires eight printed pages. With the encouragement of His Royal Highness, Charles, Prince of Wales, a search has begun on both sides of the Atlantic to find the original artifact, or at least a copy of the writing system. It has been misplaced for over 230 years.

The year is 1733. Growing increasingly fearful of a combined Spanish, French and Indian attack on its vulnerable white population, the Province of South Carolina agreed to renounce claims on territory southwest of the Savannah River so that a new colony of yeoman farmers could be established on its frontier. Roughly sixty percent of South Carolina’s population was either African or Native American slaves. These suppressed peoples would be highly inclined to assist the French and Spanish.

In 1715, without the direct assistance of European powers, the Yamasee Indians had almost succeeded in wiping the southern part Carolina off the face of the earth. Back then there was no North or South Carolina. A new alliance of tribes in the Carolina Mountains switched sides and attacked the Yamasee just at the moment when Charleston faced annihilation. This alliance was now called the Cherokees.

The new colony, called Georgia in honor of King George I, would have no slaves. Its first town, Savannah, had been designed in advance as a military bastion. Its unique plan maximized the defensive effectiveness of artillery. All males in the colony agreed to be members of the militia in return for being given free land. The colony’s Board of Trustees planned to recruit the thousands of Englishmen in debtor’s prisons, plus German Protestants, being persecuted in Catholic regions, to settle the countryside. Unlike Maryland, Virginia, South and North Carolina, there would be no plantation aristocracy. At least, that was the plan.

The key to this colony’s success would be good relations with the Muskogean peoples of the interior. Prior to the Yamasee War, they had been divided up into provinces of various sizes. The strongest province was itself an alliance known to the British as the Ochese Creek Indians. At about the same time in 1718 that the Mountain Alliance was given the name Cherokees, the Muskogeans formed their own regional confederacy from provinces speaking several languages and dialects.

The Muskogean Confederacy was not a tribe at this time, but would eventually evolve into the Creek Indians. Nevertheless, in 1733, this alliance contained the largest and most culturally advanced indigenous population in North America. It claimed all the former lands of its members, between the Smoky Mountains in North Carolina southward to St. Augustine, FL. Expansion of the Cherokee Alliance into western North Carolina had forced many Muskogean provinces to relocate to Alabama and Georgia. Its members would not be called “the Creek Indians” until the 1740s.

The founding of the Province of Georgia

Savannah was settled in February of 1733 on land given to British Crown by a small Muskogean tribe, known as the Yamacraw. Its leader, Tamachichi (Tomochichi in English) had been banished from Muskogean Confederacy for some unknown incedent. About 1728 Tomochichi created the Yamacraws from an assortment of Muskogean and Yamasee Indians after the two alliances disagreed over future relations with Great Britain and Spain. This Yamacraw village would remain adjacent to Savannah until the American Revolution. Immediately, Tamachichi and Governor James Edward Oglethorpe became close friends.

In November of 1733, Tamachichi invited the highest leaders of the Muskogean Confederacy to Savannah to meet his friend, James Oglethorpe. Tamachichi’s prestigious new status as a close ally of Great Britain brought him reinstatement into the confederacy. British officials were shocked to learn that the Indians in the interior were not one ethnic group, but many peoples with separate histories reaching back over 2,000 years. They were the vestiges of the mound-building era. The leaders agreed to be steadfast allies of Great Britain. The Okonee Province (Ocute in the de Soto Chronicles) agreed to give Oglethorpe all their land that he needed along the Atlantic Coast to establish a healthy colony.

Governor Oglethorpe immediately sent a long letter back to British government that described their new allies, who seemed very different from any Indians that the British had dealt with before. He was astonished that they were skilled in writing, math, astronomy and land surveying without being taught these skills by Europeans. He told the prime minister that he was convinced that these new allies were the descendants an ancient civilization.

The Migration Legend of the Kashita People

Early in 1734 a delegation of Muskogean Confederacy leaders returned to Savannah to confirm their alliance with Oglethorpe. This delegation was lead by Chikili, the war chief of the Palache (Apalache) who formerly lived in the gold fields of the Georgia Mountains, but now lived in the region northwest of Savannah. The highlight of a friendship ceremony was the presentation of a vellum made from a bison calf skin. On this vellum was painted in the Muskogean writing system, the history of the Kas’hita People. They were late arrivals to the Southeast. As Chikili read the vellum, Indian trader, John Musgrove and his beautiful Indian wife, Kusaponakeesa, translated the legend into English, while a notary wrote down the information. The Creek Indian writing system was capable of transmitting all verb tenses and complete thoughts.

The Kashita People called themselves, the Kauche-te, in their Itsate Creek language. They were originally vassals of Kusa, the great town visited by Hernando de Soto in the summer of 1540. At some time in the past, they moved northward to live among the Talasee Creeks in the Smoky Mountains of Tennessee, then moved to an abandoned town site on the Hiwassee River near present-day Murphy, NC. Juan Pardo visited them in the fall of 1567. He called them the Cauche. In their migration legend, the Kashita claim to have sacked a great capital on the side of Georgia’s highest mountain, Brasstown Bald. The Kashita’s description of this town seems to match the Track Rock terrace complex site.

Governor Oglethorpe immediately realized the scientific importance of the Kashita vellum. He dispatched it to England for safe-keeping. It created quite a stir in England. The American Gazetteer newspaper published a full translation and described as written with peculiar red and black characters, not pictures as normally seen on American Indian skin paintings. It reportedly was mounted in a frame on the wall of the Georgia Office in Westminster Palace as long as Georgia was a colony then misplaced. See the following URL for more complete discussions of the Creek Indians’ migration legends:

The on-going research into the cultural connections between the Southeast and Mesoamerica has sparked a renewed interest in the long forgotten bison calf vellum. Tamachichi’s name was Itza Maya. It means “Merchant Dog.” Of particular interest is the statement in contemporary London papers that the Creek Indian’s writing system consisted of “peculiar red and black characters.” During the Terminal Classic and Post-Classic Periods, the Itza Mayas used a simplified Maya writing system consisting of red and black characters. A mineral mined in Georgia was found on the buildings at Palenque, the Classic Period capital of the Itza Mayas in Chiapas.

Clarence House picks up the rugby ball

The premier of American Unearthed on December 21, 2012, about the Creek Indian-Maya connection, had the highest viewership of any program ever watched on History Channel H2. It is now being viewed by people around the world. Intrigued by the research, His Royal Highness, Charles, Prince of Wales, directed one of his personal secretaries at Clarence House to assist in the search for the lost buffalo calf vellum. Clarence House is the official residence of the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall.

The staff at Clarence House reported on January 28, 2013 has already turned up some previously unknown details about the lost vellum. Tamachichi and several family members were guests of the Archbishop of Canterbury when they visited England in 1734. His barge was at their disposal. In a ceremony on August 18, 1734 Tamachichi and Governor Oglethorpe formally presented the vellum to Archbishop William Wake at Lambeth Palace. The vellum has been the official property of the Church of England since then. It may be in the church archives rather than in the British Museum.

In a recent conversation with the Friends of Oglethorpe Society, Clarence House official, Grahame Davies, has learned that a Lutheran minister, the Rev. Martin Boltzius, copied portions of the Creek writing system then included them in personal correspondence to Lord Edgemont in England. Boltizius was the leader of the Saltzburger Colony at New Ebenezer, GA. The next step in the research process will require the laborious study of archives held by the Church of England, British Museum, British Government and the James Oglethorpe Room at the Godalming Museum in Surrey, UK. See

The results of this research could again turn the world of archaeology upside down. American anthropologists have traditionally refused to label the Southeastern Indians as “civilized” because "they did not have a writing system until the early 1800s, when Sequoyah created the Cherokee Syllabary.” There will not be a whole lot that the anthropologists can say, when an official at Clarence House presents the Creek writing system to the world.

Mike 111 on the Yamasee War

Mike 111 is a popular Researcher on the Egyptsearch Forum: Egypt. Below is a piece he did on the Yamassee War.

The Yamasee War

The Yamasee Indians were part of the Muskhogean language group. Their traditional homelands lay in present-day northern Florida and southern Georgia. The advent of the Spanish in the late 16th century forced the Yamasee to migrate north into what would become South Carolina. Relations between the tribe and English settlers in that region were generally positive during the latter half of the 17th century.

Not surprisingly, problems between the races developed. The continuing influx of white settlers put pressure on Indian agricultural and hunting lands. The relationship was further complicated in that the tribe had become dependent on English firearms and other manufactured items, and had incurred a large debt, typically payable in deerskins. White fur traders acted on their displeasure by enslaving a number of Yamasee women and children to cover portions of the outstanding debt.

In the spring of 1715, the Yamasee formed a confederation with other tribes and struck at the white settlements in South Carolina. Several hundred settlers were killed, homes burned and livestock slaughtered. The frontier regions were emptied; some fled to the relative safety of North Carolina and others pushed on to even more secure Virginia. Charleston also received large numbers of frightened settlers.

At the height of the fighting, it appeared that the tribal confederation's overwhelming numerical superiority would end in the white settlements' complete destruction in the region. This would have been a virtual certainty if the confederacy had successfully drawn the Cherokee into their cause. Instead, the Cherokee gave in to the lure of English weapons and other goods, and chose to aid the Carolinians. In a further stroke of good fortune, the besieged settlers also managed to gain support from Virginia ~ez_mdash~ an event not assured in this age of intense colonial rivalries.

The tide turned against the Yamasee, who were slowly pushed south through Georgia back into their ancestral lands in northern Florida. There, the tribe was virtually annihilated by protracted warfare with the Creeks, but some members were absorbed by the Seminole.

The Yamasee War took a heavy toll in South Carolina. Such terror had been instilled in the minds of the frontiersmen that it would take nearly 10 years for resettlement to occur in many areas. The warfare also brought a sharp change to the region's economy. Originally, farming had been the settlers' primary occupation, but the livestock supply had been so drastically depleted that many farms disappeared. In their absence, enterprising South Carolinians turned to the forests as a source of naval stores (tar, pitch and turpentine) and soon developed a lucrative trade with England. Later, the economy would develop rice and indigo as its primary products.

Mike 111 on Philip George Friedrich Von Reck's drawings of Black Native Americans of the Carolinas

Mike 111 is a popular Researcher on the Egyptsearch Forum: Egypt. Below is a piece he did on the Black Native Americans of the Carolinas.



EVER WONDER WHY THE "BLACKFOOT" were called the Blackfoot?

Blackfoot warrior, (Karl Bodmer, between 1840 and 1843)


A Moorish military musician in Berlin by Peter Schenk (c. 1690)

(He,he,he: anyone see anything "Moorish" about him?). Albinos just can't stop lying - just look at lioness!

P.S. the last of the Moors were driven out of Spain in 1492.


Peter Schenk Dutch Painting of the Yamassee War 


A Dutch view of the Yamasee War. The full title, translated from the Dutch, reads "The gruesome attack of the Indians on the English, in Carolina, West Indies, on 19 April 1715

Von Reck's drawings

The supreme commander of the Yuchi Indian nation, whose name is Kipahalgwa


Indians going a-hunting


An Indian Camp


NKS 565 4º: Von Reck's drawings

"In 1736, Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck, then only twentyfive years old, sailed with other colonists from Germany to Georgia. One of his intentions, expressed in a letter before he left Europe, was to bring back from America "ocular proof" of what he called "this strange new world." Idealistic nad enthusiastic, welleducated and blessed with an amazing artistic gift, von Reck kept a travel diary, wrote separate descriptions of the plants, animals and Indians he discovered in Georgia and drew some fifty watercolor and pencil sketches of what he saw. [...]

These drawings, accompanied by von Reck's writings, are important as history, science and art. As history, they give us a new and absolutely unique glimpse of Georgia as it looked when the first Europeans settled there. [...] As science, von Reck's natural history drawings represent the earliest records of several plants and animals. [...] Von Reck's drawings and writings are especially important for the light they shed on Indian life. The drawings show in detail their costumes and equipment, houses and activities. [...] As art, von Reck's drawings are as fresh, intimate and alive on the paper as the day they were drawn."

(Extract from 'Introduction' to VON RECK'S VOYAGE. Drawings and Journal of Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck. Edited by Kristian Hvidt. With the Assistance of Joseph Ewan, George F. Jones and William C. Sturtevant. The Beehive Press, Savannah 1980.)

In this net edition all the aquarelles and drawings in von Reck's sketch book (36,5 x 28,8 cm) and all other drawings in the collection NKS 565 4º have been reproduced. For further information on and description of the drawings and their background the book mentioned above is recommended.

Wednesday, January 28, 2015

The First Black Native Americans

We have been lied too about Black History. When I was growing up my mother made it clear that we were part Choctaw. So in 1967, I took a survey at my High School: DuSable, in Chicago and found that over 40% of my classmates had Indian heritage.


At the time many people laughed at us because they only saw Lakota ad Apache on T.V. Today because of the WWW, there are numerous pictures of Black Native Americans on the Web. Below French artist Alexandre de Batz's renderings of Native American life in colonial Louisiana, such as "Desseins de Sauvages de Plusieurs Nations" ("Drawings of Several Native Americans of Various Nations") from 1735


As you can see there was not one Native American ethnicity

Several types of blacks entered the Americas including the Khoisan, Anu or negrito type and the Proto-Saharan variety of blacks. Up until recently it was believed that the first humans crossed the Bering Strait 12,000 B.P., to enter the North American continent.(Begley 1991, p.15) This view was never accepted by physical anthropologists who have found skeletal remains far older than 12,000 B.P.

Today archaeologists have found sites from Canada to Chile that range between 20,000 and 40,000 years old. In Brazil evidence of Africans date back 100,000 years.

There are numerous sites in North and South America which are over 35,000 years old.1 These sites are the Old Crow Basin (c.38,000 B.C.) in Canada; Orogrande Cave (c.36,000 B.C.) in the United States; and Pedra Furada (c.45,000 B.C.)2 Given the fact that the earliest dates for habitation of the American continent occur below Canada in South America is highly suggestive of the fact that the earliest settlers on the American continents came from Africa before the Ice melted at the Bering Strait and moved northward as the ice melted.
The appearance of pebble tools at Monte verde in Chile (c.32,000 B.P), and rock paintings at Pedra Furada in Brazil (c.22,000 B.P.) and mastodont hunting in Venezuela and Colombia (c.13,000 B.P.), have led some researchers to believe that the Americas was first settled from South America.3 C. Vance Haynes noted that:"If people have been in South America for over 30,000 years, or even 20,000 years, why are there so few sites?....One possible answer is that they were so few in number; another is that South America was somehow initially populated from directions other than 4north until Clovis appeared".

P.S. Martin and R. G. Klein after discussing the evidence of mastodont hunting in Venezuela 13,000 years ago observed that : "The thought that the fossil record of South America is much richer in evidence of early archaeological associations than many believed is indeed provocative.... Have the earliest hunters been overlooked in North America? 5Or did the hunters somehow reach South America first"?
The early presence of ice-age sites in South America suggest that these people probably came from Africa. This would explain the affinities between 6African languages and the Amerind family of languages.

In very ancient times the American continent was inhabited by Asian and African blacks. The oldest skeletal remains found in the Americas are of blacks. Marquez (1956,p.179) observed that "it is [good] to report that long ago the youthful America was also a Negro continent." Dr. Dixon (1923) noted that as early as 70,000 B.C., Austroloid and later negritos crossed the Bering Strait to reach the New World. His dating for these early Blacks crossing the Beringa is far too earlym because ice made it impossible to cross from Asia to North America, until at least 12-15,000 years ago. This meant that Blacks had to come directly from Africa and Eurpe to settle the Americas.

And Lanning (1963) noted that "there was a possible movement of negritos from Ecuador into the Piura Valley, north of Chicama and Viru" in early times.

In the 1970’s in Brazil an interesting skull of a girl was found. This skull was reconstructed and dated back to 12,000 BC. Dr. Walter Neves professor of biological anthropology at the University of Sao Paolo, after reconstructing the “Luzia” skull found that this personage was either an African or Pacific island type Black7. And recently, archaeologist found the skull of another Blck girl dating to this period, they named Naia.

I am happy to be an Afro-Indian. My heritage is of Africa and America Being here today is just making America the way it was originally. A continent first explored and inhabited by Africans. who began sailing to America probably as early as 100,000 years ago. We definitely know Africans were here by 30kya.


1. Warwick Bray,"The Paleoindian debate". Nature 332, (10 March) 1988, p.107.

2 . Ibid, p.107; "Man's New World arrival Pushed back", Chicago Tribune, (9 May 1991) Sec.1A, p.40;and A.L. Bryan, "Points of Order". Natural History , (June 1987) pp.7-11.

3. Bryan, p.11.

4. C.V. Haynes,Jr.,"Geofacts and Fanny". Natural History ,(February 1988)pp.4-12:12.

5 . P.S. Martin and R.G.Klein (eds.),Quarternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution, (Tucson:University of Arizona Press,1989) p.111.

6 . M.Ruhlen,"Voices from the Past". Natural History, (March 1987) pp.6-10:10; J.H. Greenberg,Language in the Americas. Stanford:Stanford University Press,1987.

7 Neves W.A . and Pucciarelli H.M. 1991. "Morphological Affinities of the First Americans: an exploratory analysis based on early South American human remains". Journal of Human Evolution Journal of Human Evolution 273
Powell J.F. and Neves W.A . 1999. "Craniofacial morphology of the first Americans: pattern and process in thepeopling of the New World". Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 42:153-188
Neves W.A ., Powell J.F. and Ozolins E.G. 1999. "Extra-continental morphological affinities of Lapa Vermelha IV Hominid 1: A multivariate analysis with progressive numbers of variables. Homo 50:263-268; Neves W.A ., Powell J.F. and Ozolins E.G. 1999. "Extra-continental morphological affinities of Palli-Aike, Southern Chile". Interciencia24:258-263

Monday, January 26, 2015

Native Black Americans: War and Peace in the Carolinas


The greatest myth about the Black Native Americans is that they never existed. This myth has been perpetuated by numerous American films which record the Indian Wars with the Apache and Lakota tribes.

But the Black Native Americans had many wars first with the Spanish, and later the British colonists. These Black Native Americans lived on the Atlantic seaboard from New York, all the way down into Florida.

These Black Native Americans fought bravely for their lands. Some were sold into slavery into the Caribbean while, others were made slaves or identified as "negro freemen" in the South.

Black Native Americans have a history of fighting Europeans for their independence. Or they lost their lives fighting with the French during the French Indian War.

This was especially true in North Carolina. In North Carolina there were many Black Native Americans including the Yuchi Creek,Tuscarora and Yamasse. A large mnumber of Algonquian speaking tribes were Black Native America.


These Black Native Americans were made into slaves by the colonists. Some of them were even sold into slavery in the Caribbean. There were some Black Cherokee, but for the most part the Cherokee migrated into territory originally occupied by the Black Native American Creek, Yuchi, Tuscarora and Yamassee tribes.


At first the Europeans identified the Black Native Americans as Indians, but overtime because the Carolina Indians were predominately Negroes or Blacks, both African and Black Native American slaves were called Negroes especially after the Yamasse War.

The Black Native Americans for the most part were peaceful people. They hunted and fished or grew crops to support themselves. The British from Barbadoes upon settling the Carolinas began to enslave the Black Native Americans to take their land and force them to work their plantations.


Below is a scene of captives held by Tuscarora Indians by Baron Christoph Von Graffenried, as you can see their were different ethnicities in the drawing including Black Native Americans, and a Black European captive.


Below are Secotan from an Algonquian speaking Indian Village in North Carolina , by John White 1585. Many Algonquian speakers were Native Black Americans.


As you can see there were many Black Native American tribes in the South. Instead of telling the truth,historians claim that the only Blacks in the south were runaway slaves. This lie has been useful, for the mongoloid Indians to steal our heritage and deny that Black Native Americans ever existened.

Sunday, January 25, 2015

Archaeological Evidence of Black Native American Mound Builders

Some researchers reject the idea that Malians came to America in 1310. They base this conclusion on the myth that the first Africans came to the Americas as slaves.

The art from the American mound builders and Brazil indicate the presence of Malian military personal. Richard Hull, in Munyakaye: African Civilization before the Bature, noted that "the Mali marines wore white caps on their heds and a white tunic. On the side of the skull-caps worn by the Malian marines".E. Murphy, History of African Civilization, said the uniform of the Malian military consisted of sandles, loose fitting cotton breeches reaching down to the knees, a sleeveless tunic, and a white headdress of either cotton or leather, decorated with one or more feathers"(p.138). Below is the Brazil Tablet


As you can see the Malian royal from Brazil wears the sleeveless tunic, skullcap breeches reaching down to the knees,as described by Europeans who visited the Mali Empire.


Below is a statuette from the Spiro mound.



This figure also wears a skullcap and breeches. He also has a shield on his back. This is interesting because Malian marines usually were armed with a leather shield and short sword. This spiro mound figure may be a representation of a Malian marine.

Below are some short swords and other figures with knee-length breeches, found in the Spiro mounds.





These artifacts show the influence of Malian explorers in building mounds in North and South America.


Tuesday, January 13, 2015

Chinese Domesticated Donkeys' Nubian Origin

Han et al. (2014). Ancient DNA provides new insight into the maternal lineages and domestication of Chinese donkeys BMC Evolutionary Biology 2014, 14:246

Han et al (2014) in a study of Chinese donkeys found that the Chinese donkeys are descendant from the Nubian wild ass (Equus africanus africanus) . They believe these donkeys were in China before the Han empire.

The researchers noted that the: “ First, Chinese historical records state that 4000 years ago, the donkey was a treasure that was rare and only found in the aristocratic and imperial palaces”. This is an interesting finding because I have shown elsewhere that the Kushites from Nubia: Mande and Dravidian speakers founded the first civilizations of China: Xia and Shang respectively. This finding offers further support to the Kushite origin of the Xia and Shang.
You can find out more about the Blacks of Xia and Shang in my book:

Sunday, January 11, 2015

The first Americans Naia, and Luzia dating to 12,000 BC were Negroes

NAIA of Mexico

LUZIA of Brazil

Archaeologist have reconstructed the faces of ancient Americans from Brazil and Mexico. These faces are based on the skeletal remains dating back to 12,000BC.

Researchers working on these ancient people note that they resemble Negroes, instead of contemporary Native Americans.

In the  Smithsonian Magazine Dr. Chatters who found Naia's skeleton, noted that: 

“The small number of early American specimens discovered so far have smaller and shorter faces and longer and narrower skulls than later Native Americans, more closely resembling the modern people of Africa, Australia, and the South Pacific. "This has led to speculation that perhaps the first Americans and Native Americans came from different homelands," Chatters continues, "or migrated from Asia at different stages in their evolution."

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Although Dr. Chatters believes these Negroes came from Asia this seems unlikely. It is unlikely because the Ice Age would have made it impossible to sail from Asia to Mexico and Brazil at this time. These Negroes were probably Blacks from Africa. This is the most likely origin of these Blacks;  the Dafuna boat dating back to 18,000 BC, shows that Africans had boats at this early date.

The Khoisan Probably took haplogroups N and y-chromosome R to Eurasia during the Aurignacian period


I discuss the origin  Europeans genes  in my recent paper: " Were the First Europeans Pale or Dark Skinned?


I quote"
The traditional view for the spread of L3(M, N) across Eurasia is that the M and N macrohaplogroups originated in western Eurasia and returned to Africa as a result of back-migration. The big problem for this theory is that the proposed dates for the origin of haplogroups N and M in western Europe, date to a period when these areas were inhabited by Neanderthal people—not AMH. This supports an African origin for L3(M, N).

The craniometric evidence supports a Khoisan presence in Europe during Aurignacian times. If the Khoisan represent the ancient dark skinned European population, this reality should be able to be confirmed by genetic research.

The most archaic AMH remains come from Florished, South Africa; they date between 190 - 330 kya (Rito et al., 2013). Other ancient fossil evidence of AMH in South Africa come from Broken Hill (c. 110 kya) and the Klasis River caves (c. 65 - 105 kya). Researchers have been surprised to find Khoisan and European admixture. The idea that the Khoisan acquired Eurasian admixture via Ethiosemitic speakers is pure speculation (Pickrell et al., 2013). There is no archaeological
evidence of Ethiopians migrating into East and South Africa, but there is evidence of an ancient migration of Khoisan into Europe based on archaeological and skeletal data.

The Khoisan carry haplogroups L3(M, N). Before they reached Iberia, they probably stopped in West Africa. The basal L3(M) motiff in West Africa is characterized by the Ddel site np 10,394 and Alul site np 10,397 associated with AF-24. This supports my contention that Khoisan speakers early settled West Africa on their way to Iberia.

Granted L3 and L2 are not as old as LOd, but Gonder et al. (2006) provides very early dates for this mtDNA e.g., L3(M, N) 94.3; the South African Khoisan (SAK) carry L1c, L1, L2, L3 M, N dates to 142.3 kya; the Hadza are L2a, L2, L3, M, N, dates to 96.7 kya.

The dates for L1, L2, L3, M, N are old enough for the Khoisan to have taken N to West Africa, where we find L3, L2 and LOd and thence to Iberia as I suggested in my paper (Winters, 2011). It is interesting to note that LO haplogroups are primarily found among Khoisan and West Africans. This shows that at some point in prehistory the Khoisan had migrated into West Africa.

The first modern European reconstructed by Forensic artist Richard Neave based on skull fragments from 35,000 years ago resembled a Khoisan (Figure 1). The skull was discovered in the southwest region of Romania’s Carpathian Mountains. This supports the research of Boule and Vallois that South Africans migrated into Europe 35 kya. This genetic evidence now supports Boule and Vallois of a Khoisan migration into Europe.

The Khoisan may have introduced the L haplogroup to Iberia. The SAK populations carry haplogroups L2, and L3. de Domínguez (2005), noted that much of the ancient mtDNA found in Iberia has no relationship to the people presently living in Iberia today and correspond to African mtDNA haplogroups. de Domínguez (2005) found that the lineages recovered from ancient Iberian skeletons are the African lineages L1b, L2 and L3."




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