Wednesday, November 19, 2014

Haplogroup M May Have Spread Across Africa before 60kya OoA Event

Sebastian Lippold1, Hongyang Xu12, Albert Ko1, Mingkun Li13, Gabriel Renaud1, Anne Butthof14, Roland Schröder1 and Mark Stoneking1 .(2014) Human paternal and maternal demographic histories: insights from high-resolution Y chromosome and mtDNA sequences. Investigative Genetics 2014, 5:13 doi:10.1186/2041-2223-5-13.
There is a new article out on the histories of the human mtDNA and y-chromosome. The striking finding of the study of Lippold et all (2014) is that haplogroup M, is dated to 65-70kya. They wrote:


The age of the mtDNA ancestor is estimated to be about 160 thousand years ago (kya), and the ages of the non-African mtDNA lineages M and N are about 65 to 70 kya, in good agreement with previous estimates [54]. Our estimate for the age of the NRY ancestor is 103 kya based on the fast rate, and 165 kya based on the slow rate; however these estimates do not include the recently-discovered ‘A00’ lineage [41], which would result in much older ages for the NRY ancestor. The close agreement between the slow NRY ancestor age (165 kya) and the mtDNA ancestor age (160 kya) might be taken as evidence in favor of the slow NRY mutation rate. However, the slow NRY mutation rate gives an estimated age for the initial out-of-Africa divergence of about 100 kya, and an age for the divergence of Amerindian-specific haplogroup Q lineages of about 20 kya, while the fast rate gives corresponding estimates of about 60 kya for out-of-Africa and about 12.5 kya for Amerindian haplogroup Q lineages, in better agreement with the mtDNA and other evidence for these events [54-57].

This finding is interesting because the authors date the out of Africa (OoA) event to 60kya. It is interesting because it indicates that haplogroup M may have already spread across Africa before the OoA exit. This finding supports may previous work illustrating that hg M, probably expanded across Africa before the OoA event.

Tuesday, November 11, 2014

Africans Discover Brazil 100,000 Years Ago

Fire unless the result of lightening is produced by man. The evidence that fire existed in Brazil 65kya is an indication that man was at the site 65,000 years ago, since researchers found charcoal, which is the result of fire making.
The New York Times, reported that humans were Brazil 100,000 years ago .

If you would see the New York Times video you would noted that Dr.Nieda Guidon supports her dating of human population in Brazil 100,000 years ago to ancient fire and tool making.
Look at the New York Times video: Human’s First Appearance in the Americas @:

If you view the video you will see that human occupation of Brazil 100,000 years ago is supported by man made fire, e.g., the charcoal, and tools.

Dr. Guidon who conducted excavation at the site notes at 2:09 the site is 100,000 years old. At 3:17 in the video scientists proved that the tools are the result of human craftsmanship . So researchers reject this evidence because it proves that Blacks were here before the mongoloids.

It is interesting that it is becoming clear that people may have left Africa 100kya, instead of 60kya to settle the world. This may indicate that Australians made their way to America before the Khoisan.

Dr.Nieda Guidon hypothesized that man appeared in Brazil 100,000 years ago from Africa. She illustrated that her hypothesis was confirmed by 1) structures to make fire, i.e. hearths,2) stone tools and charcoal was found in the hearths that date back 100kya,3) the Ice Age prevented people from reaching Brazil from Asia, while the winds and currents would have carried people directly from Africa to Brazil.

Since the hypothesis was confirmed by scientific evidence, we can accept her hypothesis as valid and reliable.

The charcoal and tools were found in hearths, not generally on the site of proposed human habitation. If the charcoal and tools were made naturally the entire site would have been burned, instead of just artifacts found in the hearths.We can accept Dr.Nieda Guidon hypothesis because it is normal science to use charcoal recovered from hearths to date a human habitation site.

The question remains why did Africans 100kya discover South America. The best answer is the spirit of adventure and discovery.
At this time Africa was more wetter and the frequentcy of boat engravings in the Sahara indicate Africans had a high boat technology and navigation ability..


100kya there were numerous lakes, rivers and streams in Africa that exited in the Atlantic Ocean. The distance from Lake Chad to Lake Congo was greater than the distance from Africa to Brazil. Any captains and sailors who had traded with cities and towns situated on these Lakes would have been familiar with storing enough foods to last the voyages.[b]

These ancient navigators were probably like Columbus. They may have not known about South America, but they were willing to take a chance to see what lands lay at the edge of the Sea.
We forget that the evidence of boats depicted throughout ancient Africa make it clear people were not afraid of traveling by sea.

Friday, November 7, 2014

New Book :Dravidian (Tamil) is the language of the Indus Valley Writing: A study of the most ancient Tamil Language

List Price: $18.99
8.5" x 11" (21.59 x 27.94 cm)
Black & White on White paper
194 pages
ISBN-13: 978-1503117204 (CreateSpace-Assigned)
ISBN-10: 1503117200
BISAC: History / Asia / India & South Asia

This book provides a detailed decipherment of the Indus Valley writing. It gives the reader an explanation of how Dr. Winters deciphered the Indus Valley writing and how the language of the Indus Valley seals is an ancient aspect of Tamil.
The book is divided into two parts one is an overview of the Indus Valley writing while part two provides a detailed account of how to read the seals and the grammar of the Indus Valley language. The book also provides a dictionary of over 200 signs that have been deciphered by Dr. Winters.