Friday, November 17, 2017

Kumarinadu the Great Dravidian Empire in the Indian Ocean

     In ancient times there was a large Island the Indian Ocean called Kumarinadu. Kamarinadu  or Kumari-Kandam  formerly existed as a large Island in the India ocean which connected India with East Africa. The name "Kumari Kandam" first appear in Kanda Puranam, a 15th century Tamil version of the Skanda Purana, written by Kachiappa Sivacharyara (1350-1420). Some researchers claim that Kumari Kandam is actually a derivative of the Sanskrit words "Kumarika Khanda".

In 1903, V.G. Suryanarayana Sastri first used the term "Kumarinatu" (or "Kumari Nadu", meaning "Kumari territory") in his work Tamil Moliyin Varalaru (History of the Tamil language). The term Kumari Kandam ("Kumari continent") was first used to describe Lemuria in the 1930s.

 This landmass is mentioned in the Silappadikaram, which said that Kamarinadu was made up of seven nadus or regions. The Dravdian scholars Adiyarkunallar and Nachinaar wrote about the ancient principalities of Tamilaham, which existed on Kamarinadu.

    Kumarinadu was ruled by the Pandyans/Pandians at Madurai  before it sunk beneath the sea. The greatest king of Kumarinadu was Sengoon. According to Dravidian scholars tha Pandyans worshipped the goddess Kumari Amman. This Aman, probably corresponds to the ancient god Amon of the  Kushites.

 The Kalittokai 104, makes it clear that after the Pandyans were forced to migrate off their Island home into South India, “to compensate for the area lost to the great waves of the sea, King Pandia without tiresome moved to the other countries and won them. Removing the emblems of tiger (Cholas) and bow (Cheras) he, in their place inscribed his reputed emblem fish (Pandia’s) and valiantly made his enemies bow to him”.


     The mention of the fish emblem indicates the African origin of the Pandyans. The Proto-Saharans claimed that their great ancestor was Ma and that they belonged to the Ma (fish) clan. Fish tails were a common feature of the Egyptians, Elamites, Sumerians and Dravidians.



         The common god of the fish cult was the man-fish (of Eridu) in Mesopotamia and Syria , and the ithyphallic forms of Min, a proto-type of Amon (Amman) in Egypt, the goddess Minaaksi of Madura, Amma of the Dogon, the goddess of the fish eyes, the Malabar fish bearer of Maana ; and the sacred fishes of the Maapilla of the West coast of the Dekkan. At ancient Adulis, the Greeks claimed that the fish worshippers were called Icthyophagi or Poseidon.

      In fact the first kings of these people used the consonants MNS, in the term used for king: Menes, King Aha of Egypt, Mannan of the Dravidians, and the  Mansa of the Mande speaking people. The descendants of Ma, include this name in their ethnonyms: Mande= “the children of Ma”. And in Kannada, Tlugu and Tulu, the word Mandi= “people”.

       The Pandyans who probably spoke Malayalam, were worshippers of Posidon or Potidan of the Greeks. Just as the Kalittokai, mentioned that the totem of Pandia was the Fish, we find that Africans in areas ajoining the former lands associated with Kumarinadu also worshipped the Fish. As a result in ancient times Nubia and modern Ethiopia was called Poseidonia due to their worship of Poseidon the god of the sea and the mountains.

The major god worshipped by the Pandyans and East Africans is Murugan, the god of the mountains. This mountain god of the Dravidians: Murugan, has the same name among 25 east African ethnic groups.
     The Greek god Posidon of the East Africans parallels the Dravidian god Siva. The god Siva is sometimes referred to as the “Great Fish” and represented by Fish signs. In addition, throughout Tamilnadu, tridents are associated with temples dedicated to the worship of Siva. The trident was also associated with Siva.

    The final Dravidian speaking people to enter South India were the Tamil. The Tamil, who were early Kings of Shang China, were forced out of China by the Zhou dynast and other contemporary mongoloid groups, across Southeast Asia and Tibet into India. These people defeated the Pandyans , Cholas and Cheras and became the dominant group in South India.

    In Summary , Dravidian literature makes it clear that the Dravidian people came to South India from the North, South and East. These people took away the South from the Naga (ancient Ethiopians), who along with the Dravidians worshipped the gods Amon and Murugan. Moreover, it was the Ethiopians who probably introduced Sanskrit writing to the Indians. It is due to this history of Dravidian speaking people that explains the close, genetic unity between the language and cultures of the people.



Saturday, November 11, 2017

21 Points Proving Blacks were in Ancient America before Mongoloids ..

21 Points Proving Blacks were in Ancient America before Mongoloids

1)      The first Americans, the Paleoamericans were Blacks. This reality is based on the skeletal remains of  Naia and Luzia were Negroes or Black

2)      Black Africans according to researchers have been in Brazil since 100,000BC. The evidence that fire existed in Brazil 65kya is an indication that man was at the site 65,000 years ago, since researchers found charcoal, which is the result of fire making. The New York Times, reported that humans were Brazil 100,000 years ago .

If you would see the New York Times video you would noted that Dr.Nieda Guidon supports her dating of human population in Brazil 100,000 years ago to ancient fire and tool making.

3.       The original Maya beginning with the Ocos , as illustrated by their the art, were Black Native Americans;
The Mayans were originally Black Native Americans. The ancestors of the original Maya  were PaleoAmericans.
In Belize , around 2500 B.C., we see evidence of agriculture. The iconography of this period depicts Africoids. And at Izapa in 1358 B.C., astronomer-priests invented the first American calendar. In addition numerous sculptures of blacks dating to the 2nd millennium B.C, have been found at La Venta, Chiapas, Teotihuacan and Tlatilco.

  Chiapas Blacks

The earliest culture founded by Blacks in the Pacific coats region was the Mokaya tradition. The Mokaya tradition was situated on the Pacific coast of Mexico in the Soconusco region. Sedentary village life began as early as 2000BC. By 1700-1500 BC we see many African communities in the Mazatan region. This is called the Barra phase or Ocos complex. 

During the Barra phase these Blacks built villages amd made beautiful ceramic vessels often with three legs. They also made a large number of effigy vessels.

The figurines of the Ocos are the most significant evidence for Blacks living in the area during this period. The female figurine from Aquiles Serdan is clearly that of an African woman.

Ocos Female

The Blacks of the Mokaya traditions were not Olmec. The civilization of the Mokaya traditions began 700 years before the Olmec arrived in Mexico.


In most history text the Ocos are presented as the original founders of Mayan civilization. As you can see from the art they do not look like native Americans they look negro like other Africans.

The Mongoloid Mexicans do not look like the Olmecs either

4.       The Black Native Americans lived from Chiapas to Belize, Guatemala and Hondurus; Quatrefages and Rafinesque wrote about these Blacks They are called the The Negrocostachicanos claim that they have never been slaves and are indigenous to Guererro and Oaxaca on the Pacific coast of Mexico. The 1990 Mexican census recorded 66,000 Negrocostachicanos. These Mexicans live in African style huts and practice rituals which may be of African origin (Vaugh,2005a).

Most researchers believe that the Negrocostachicanos are descendants of marrons or runaway slaves (Aguirre Beltran, 1972; Vaugh,2005a). But none of the Blacks of Costa Chica have songs about slavery and its hardships ( Negrocostachicanos say “they are not they insist, the descendants of African slaves. There was never slavery here, even in ancient times” (,2005). Bobby Vaugh (2005b) noted that he found “no consciousness of slavery among people in Costa Chica” (p.5). Another researcher, noted that “Housewives in San Jose Estancia Grande and Santiago Tapextla [in Costa Chica] say their ancestors did not come from Africa, that their families have always lived right here” (, 2005, p.6).

5. The Olmec came from West Africa. They spoke the Mande language. The traditions of Mexican Indians make it clear that the founders of civilization in Mexico, came from the East, and arrived in Mexico as a result of a shipwreck. This is interesting because Bobby Vaugh (2005b) said that the Negrocostachicanos claim they arrived in Mexico as a result of shipwrecks.


The Stela No.5 from Izapa makes it clear that the Olmec arrived in Mexico by boat. The fact that Stela No.5, depicts 12 roots as part of ‘the tree of life’ support the Mexican tradition that the Easterners who brought civilization to Mexico came in 12 waves.

The Mexican traditions that support the spread of the Olmec from the east coast of Mexico to the west coast make it clear that the Olmec lived in Oaxaca and Guererro, in addition to Veracruz. The fact that the Olmec mention coming to America by boat may explain the Negrocostachicano claim that they arrived in America as a result of a shipwreck, and never were Spanish slaves. 

5) The Olmecs spoke a Mande languages.  Using the Vai language I was able to decipher the Olmec language.
 As a result The root of the Mayan language is the Mande languages The Mayan and Mande languages share vocabulary items and culture terms.

6) The Khoisan took MtDNA haplogroups  the mtDNA  L3 (M,N) and y-haplogroup E to Eurasia and the Americas
7) There are no “pure” Mexindians. Lisker noted that between 5-50% of Indian genes are African genes. See: Suarez-Diaz,(2014) Indigenous populations in Mexico. Medical anthropology in the Work of Ruben Lisker in the 1960’s. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 47 (p.117).
This is why many Mexicans look like Africans or Negroes
8) Mixe, Zenu , Wayuu and other Mexican groups with YAP+ associated A-G transition at DYS271, is of African origin.

9) Indian y-chromosome haplogroups C and D show African admixture at locus DYS271
10) The American haplogroups A and B are part of the haplogroup N macrohaplogroup Ch’ol and Chontal at Campeche carry R-M173, E1b1b, K and T.
11) Africans people carry mtDNA A common to mongoloid Native Americans and  y-chromosome R, so they probably passed on these genes to mongoloid Native Americans 
12) The Spanish explorers mentioned Black Nations and Black tribes in the Americas, they met, even before African slaves were landed in America
13) The Spanish said the Aztecs were Negroes.
14) Paul Gaffarel (2010) that when Balboa reached America he found "negre veritables" or true Blacks. Balboa noted "...Indian traditions of Mexico and Central America indicate that Negroes were among the first occupants of that territory." This is why so many Mexicans have "African faces".
15. Vasco da Gama is said to have found information about the West Indies from Ahmad b. Majid, whom he met along the West Coast of Africa . Bazan, R.A.G. (1967). Latin America the Arabs and Islam,,Muslim World, pp.284-292.
16)Majid wrote a handbook of navigation on the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, Sea of Southern China  and the waters around the West Indian Islands. Bazan, R.A.G. (1967). Latin America the Arabs and Islam,,Muslim World, pp.284-292.

17)  Africans had the boats capable of sailing to the Americas. Abubakari the King of Mali led thousands of Africans to settle America.
18) Black Native Mayan people have left iconography in the sub-pyramids at Tikal, San Bartolo and Xultun murals which depict the creators of these monuments as Negroes or Blacks
The most exciting archaeological fine has to be the Xultun murals. The xultun murals depict not only Black Mayan royalty—but also Mayan commoners and elites.

Below we see some Black atrchitects and engineers that built the Xultun pyramids.

These colorful llustrations are by Dr. by Heather Hurst. The illustrations of Dr. Hurst, of the Xultun figures show that the Black people there dressed in bright colors and wore various scarves and other hats to cover their hair/heads.

Below are the architects and engineers that built Xultun

The Stylized reproduction of Black Mexicans from the Bonampak Murals at Chiapas, Mexico are also colorful.

The colorful outfits of the Latin Americans continue to be worn today.

19) Ancient Mayan Skeletons carried sickle cell.
20. There are no “pure” Mexindians.

There is a high frequency of African-Mestizo admixture ranging between 20-40% .
The admixture rate between Africans and indigenous Mexican Indians ranges between 5-50% .

Some Mestizos may hate themselves. Their light and white skins betry their origin as the products of white French, Spanish and German men who exploited their Black and Mongoloid grandmothers to make the Mestizo raza.

Many Mestizos declare viva la raza, when in reality their faces and features tell the story of exploited indigenous Black and mongoloid women who were raped to satisfy the sexual desire of their white fathers, who murdered the husbands and lovers of their poor mistreated and abused indigenous grandmothers. Mestizos like their grandfathers seek to steal the history of Black Native Americans, because they are ashamed that their real history is the history of the criminals and sexual deviants who made their race.

That is why when they say viva la raza, they are celebrating the rape and exploitation of the indigenous Black and mongoloid people. To be proud of Mestizo heritage, while denying the history of the Black indigenous Americans is just them paying homage to the evil history of their grandfathers.

21) The Black Africans took their writings systems with them to America. The first Africans to introduce writing to the Americas were the Olmecs. They took writing into Mexico around 1200 BC.
The first researcher to recognize that the Olmec writing was Mande was Leo Wiener, in Africa and the discovery of America. He recognized that the writing on the Tuxtla statuette was written in Mande characters.

Mojarra Stela

Tuxtla Statuette

Many of these Blacks continued to use the Vai script to write into Mayan times.
The Vai script was also taken to America by the the Malian explorers led by Abubakari in 1310. They left inscriptions across the United States.

Check out this article on the inscription Abubakari left in South America. See: Sea-Farers from the Levant: Do Ancient Inscriptions Rewrite History of the Americas? - Part 2
During the Atlantic Slave trade African slaves used traditional writing systems to communicate with each other. For example the Djuka , who I believe speak a creole language, with an Akan dialect substratum . The Djuka had their own writing system in Surinam.


Herskovits also recorded some Djuka text. K. Hau did considerable research on the Djuka script. Research done by K. Hau indicate that the script was in use in Surinam prior to 1910.

Sunday, September 24, 2017

The Fulani do not Carry Haplogroup H because of Eurasian Admixture

Iva Kulichová et al. (2017).Internal diversification of non-Sub-Saharan haplogroups in Sahelian populations and the spread of pastoralism beyond the Sahara,

This paper is based on speculation. It has no ancient DNA and archaeological data to support its conclusions. To support their propositions they cite Haber et al,2016, and Cherni et al, 2005. The Haber et al(2016) article claims that there was a back migration of R1b carriers because some Central Africans carry R1b, but these writers never name the culture bearers who introduced R1b, and the European culture this population came from. The Cherni et al (2005) paper is speculation because it lacks any aDNA to support their claims.

The authors state that:

We show that age estimates of the maternal lineage H1cb1, occurring almost exclusively in the Fulani, point to the time when the first cattle herders settled the Sahel/Savannah belt. Similar age estimates were obtained for paternal lineage R1b-V88, which occurs today in the Fulani but also in other, mostly pastoral populations. Maternal clade U5b1b1b, reported earlier in the Berbers, shows a shallower age, suggesting another possibly independent input into the Sahelian pastoralist gene pool.

Despite the fact that animal domestication originated in the Near East
10 ka, and that it was from there that animals such as sheep, goats as well as cattle were introduced into Northeast Africa soon thereafter, contemporary cattle keepers in the Sahel/Savannah belt show uniparental genetic affinities that suggest the possibility of an ancient contact with an additional ancestral population of western Mediterranean ancestry.

Problem 1. The Fulani did not come from the Middle East. Secondly, just because a population carries a specific gene does not mean the haplogroup originated elsewhere. The authors could only support this conclusion by:

a) Providing individuals from specific cultures that carry a specific set of genes;

b) Provide the name of the culture and artifacts associated with the culture;

c) The date for the Culture

The failure to provide this information makes the claim groundless.

Problem 2. The authors contend that cattle domestication began in the Middle East. But they fail to identify the cattle rearing culture associated with this domestication.

The earliest documented case of cattle domestication comes from Nabta Playa. The population at Nabta Playa , took cattle and Ounan-Harifian points to the Levant. It was these African agro-pastoral people who took cattle rearing and archery to Europe and spread the Bell Beaker and related cultures across Europe.

The archeaogenetic evidence makes it clear that H1 was taken to Iberia, not vice versa.

Genetic evidence based on contemporary populations can not support an ancient origin of any population without archaeological and linguistic evidence.


Clyde Winters, The Fulani are not from the Middle East, PNAS 2010 107 (34) E132; published ahead of print August 3, 2010, doi:10.1073/pnas.1008007107

Friday, September 22, 2017

The Neolithic Process of North Africa was done by Africans-Not Eurasians

Niger-Congo Speakers probably played an important role in the peopling of the Sahara. Drake et al make it clear there was considerable human activity in the Sahara before it became a desert[1]. Drake et al [1] provides evidence that the original settlers of this wet Sahara, who used aquatic tool kits, were Nilo-Saharan (NS) speakers. The authors also recognized another Saharan culture that played a role in the peopling of the desert. This population hunted animals with the bow-and –arrow; they are associated with the Ounanian culture. The Ounanian culture existed 12kya [3].

The IAM people [Early Neolithic Moroccans] (5), were nothing more than hunter-gatherer Kushites that had originally belonged to the Ounanian Culture (3-4). The Ounanians, like their Kushite descendants were great archers and based their civilization on hunting using the bow, and limited cattle domestication (3-4).

The Ounanian culture was first described by Breuil in 1930 at Ounan to the south of Taodeni in northern Mali. Ounanian Points are suggested to be the hallmark of the some Epipaleolithic industries in the central Sahara, the Sahel and northern Sudan, and dated to the early Holocene.

The Ounanian culture is associated with sites in central Egypt, Algeria, Mali, Mauretania and Niger [3-4]. The Ounanian tradition is probably associated with the Niger-Congo phyla. This would explain the close relationship between the Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan languages[3].

The original homeland of the Niger-Congo speakers was probably situated in the Saharan Highlands during the Ounanian period. From here NC populations migrated into the Fezzan, Nile Valley and Sudan as their original homeland became more and more arid.

In the Eastern Sahara many individual types of tanged and shouldered arrowheads occur on early Holocene prehistoric sites along with Green Saharan/Wavy-line pottery (1-2) . 'Saharo-Sudanese Neolithic' wavy-line, dotted wavy line and walking-comb pottery was used from Lake Turkana to Nabta Playa, in Tibestim , Mauritania, on into in the Hoggar, in Niger. This pottery evolved into the Beaker Bell ceramics.

Wavy-line pottery 

The Ounanian culture was not isolated in Africa. It was spread into the Levant. As a result, we have in the archaeological literature the name Ounan-Harif point. This name was proposed for the tanged points at Nabta Playa and Bir Kiseiba .

Tanged Point

Harifian is a specialized regional cultural development of the Epipalaeolithic of the Negev Desert. Harifian has close connections with the late Mesolithic cultures of Fayyum and the Eastern Deserts of Egypt, whose tool assemblage resembles that of the Harifian.

The tangled Ounanian points are also found at Foum Arguin . These points were used from Oued Draa, in southern Morocco, to the Banc d’Arguin and from the Atlantic shore to the lowlands of northwestern Sahara in Mauritania . We now have DNA from Ounanian sites in Morocco.

All the burials in Ifri n’Amr o’Moussa site IAM1-IAM7 , are devoid of any artifacts, except for an original funeral ritual, which consists of placing a millstone on the skull (5) . These burials were dated from 4,850 to 5,250 BCE, they carried U6, M1, T2, X and K (5). This suggest that Africans were already carrying this mtDNA. The spread of the Ounanians to Harif in the Levant explains the presence of these Kushite clades in the Levant and Anatolia. 

In summary, the Niger-Congo speakers or Kushites formerly lived in the highland regions of the Fezzan and Hoggar until after 4000 BC. The ancestors of the Kushites were the Ounanians who spread the Ounan-Harfian toolkit, pottery and arrows from throughout North Africa, into Iberia and the Levant. Originally hunter-gatherers the Proto-Niger- Congo people developed an agro-pastoral economy which included the cultivation of millet, and domestication of cattle (and sheep). It was these Kushites who introduced mtDNA U6, M1, T2, X and K; and Y-Chromosome R1b into Eurasian from their African homeland in the Sahel-Sahara. 

1. Nick A. Drake, Roger M. Blench, Simon J. Armitage, Charlie S. Bristow, and Kevin H. White. (2010). Ancient watercourses and biogeography of the Sahara explain the peopling of the desert PNAS 2011 108 (2) 458-462; published ahead of print December 27,2010, doi:10.1073/pnas.1012231108
2. Vernet R, Ott M, Tarrou L, Gallin A, Géoris-Creuseveau J. (2007) Excavation of the mound of FA 10 (Banc d'Arguin) and its contribution to the knowledge of the culture paleolithical Foum Arguin, northwestern Sahara (Translated from French) J Afr Archaeol 5:17–46.
3. Winters C. (2012). Origin of the Niger-Congo Speakers. WebmedCentral GENETICS 2012;3(3). 
5. Fregel R, et al (2017). Neolithization of North Africa involved the migration of people from both the Levant and Europe. bioRxiv 191569; doi:

Thursday, September 21, 2017

Neolithization of North Africa preprint

Rosa Fregel  R, et al (2017). Neolithization of North Africa involved the migration of people from both the Levant and Europe. bioRxiv 191569; doi:

Interesting paper. It promotes the idea of a back migration to Africa. It is interesting because the results parallel archaeological findings in the Neolithic sites in North Africa and Andalusian Early Neolithic and Cardial cultures, and ivory tools associated Iberian Neolithic sites.

The major problem with the paper is that it fails to explain that the earliest sites for these artifacts including bell beaker are found in North Africa--not Europe. as a result. we have more evidence that U6, M1, T2, X and K originated in Africa not Europe The Bell Beaker sites in North Africa date to 5kya, while the Spanish Bell Beaker sites only date to the 2nd Millennium BC.


Martín-Socas D, et al. (2004).Cueva de El Toro (Antequera, Málaga-Spain). A Neolithic Stockbreeding Community in the Andalusian region between VI-III millenniums B.C.. Documenta Praehistorica XXX:126-143 . [accessed Sep 22, 2017]. Available from C

Wednesday, September 20, 2017

V88 and the Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype

Now Geneticists are pretending V88 (R1b1a2) is M269 in relation to the migration of the CHG and EF populations from Africa into Eurasia, These Africans, the Kushites who introduced archery, farming and cattle rearing to Eurasia. 

Martiniano R, Cassidy LM, Ó'Maoldúin R, McLaughlin R, Silva NM, Manco L, et al. (2017) The population genomics of archaeological transition in west Iberia: Investigation of ancient substructure using imputation and haplotype-based methods. PLoS Genet 13(7): e1006852. 


Recent ancient DNA work has demonstrated the significant genetic impact of mass migrations from the Steppe into Central and Northern Europe during the transition from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age. In Iberia, archaeological change at the level of material culture and funerary rituals has been reported during this period, however, the genetic impact associated with this cultural transformation has not yet been estimated. In order to investigate this, we sequence Neolithic and Bronze Age samples from Portugal, which we compare to other ancient and present-day individuals. Genome-wide imputation of a large dataset of ancient samples enabled sensitive methods for detecting population structure and selection in ancient samples. We revealed subtle genetic differentiation between the Portuguese Neolithic and Bronze Age samples suggesting a markedly reduced influx in Iberia compared to other European regions. Furthermore, we predict individual height in ancients, suggesting that stature was reduced in the Neolithic and affected by subsequent admixtures. Lastly, we examine signatures of strong selection in important traits and the timing of their origins.

The authors argue that the three Bronze Age individuals carrying R1b1a2, represent R-M269, but this is false they represent V88 and M18. Moreover, they fail to show discontinuity because, we find R1b1a (R-L754) carried by Villabruna, who lived 15kya in north-west Italy, and was a member of the Epigravettian culture. R-L754 has a high frequentcy among Africans.

V88 and the Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype 

Euronuts have no limit to their blatant and stealthily rewriting of history to "whiteout" Black and African people. The aDNA of the CHG and EF of Europe is R1b1a2. Although ISOGG 216 makes it clear this haplogroup is V88, in the research literature they are referring to this clade (R1b1a2) as R1b-P312/M269 , eventhough M269 is R1b1a1a2.

The presence of R1b1a2 in Europe is explained by the migration of the Kushites into Europe via Gibraltar and Anatolia

Sunday, August 6, 2017

The Ancient Minoans were Mande Speakers not Greeks

Eurocentrists never give up trying to "white out", Blacks from ancient history. Many of the Minoan murals were repainted to make them look more European. But The Minoans were Blacks.

Population genetics can not change history and archaeology except in the mind of the confused and promoters of Eurocentrism. The Greeks made it clear the Minoans came from Africa and were descendants of the Garamantes.

The Garamantes founded civilization in Minoa, or ancient Crete.The Garamantes were Mande speakers not Berbers.

The Tuareg did not come from the Fezzan, they originated in the East. According to Tuareg tradition they originated in the Tafilalt or Tafilet (Arabic: تافيلالت‎) a important oasis of the Moroccan Sahara, and migrated from there to the Fezzan.

The Ancient Minoans: Keftiu were Mande Speakers 

Every since Arthur Evans discovered the Hieroglyphic and Linear A writing of Crete there has been a search for the authors of this writing.

Some Grecian traditions indicate that Libyans (called Garamante) formerly lived on Crete. This suggest that the Eteocretans may have spoken one of the ancient languages of Libya.

Sources agree that Garama was name of their capital city. Garamante was the name for the tribe.

Garama was the name of the capital city of the Garamantes. Pliny the Elder wrote"clarissimumque Garama caput Garamantum, the "well known Garam capital, of the Garamantes".See:

A major group from Libya that settled Crete were the Garamante. Robert Graves in (Vol.1, pp.33-35) maintains that the Garamante originally lived in the Fezzan and fused with the inhabitants of the Upper Niger region of West Africa.

This theory is interesting because the chariot routes from the Garama, in the Fezzan terminated at the Niger river. In addition, the Cretan term for king "Minos", agrees with the Mande/Manding word for ruler "Mansa". Both these terms share consonantal agreement : M N S.

The name Garamante, illustrates affinity to Mande morphology and grammar. The Mande language is a member of the Niger-Congo group of languages. The name for the Manding tribe called "Mande", means Ma 'mother, and nde 'children', can be interpreted as "Children of Ma", or "Mothers children " (descent among this group is matrilineal) . The word Garamante,can be broken down into Malinke-Bambara into the following monosyllabic words Ga 'hearth', arid, hot'; Mante/Mande , the name of the Mande speaking tribes. This means that the term: Garamante, can be interpreted as "Mande of the Arid lands" or "Arid lands of the children of Ma". This last term is quite interesting because by the time the Greeks and Romans learned about the Garamante, the Fezzan was becoming increasingly arid.



The Egyptians called the Cretans Keftiu. There is agreement between the Keftiu names recorded by Egyptian scribes (T.E. Peet, "The Egyptian writing board BM5647 bearing Keftiu names". In , (ed.) by S Casson (Oxford, 1927, 90-99)), and Manding names.

The root kef-, in Keftiu, probably is Ke'be, the name of a Manding clan , plus the locative suffix {i-} used to give the affirmative sense, plus the plural suffix for names {u-}, and the {-te} suffixial element used to denote place names, nationalities and to form words.

On the Egyptian writing board there are eight Keftiu names. These names agree with Manding names:

Keftiu....... Manding

sh h.r........ Sye

Nsy ..........Nsye

'ksh .........Nkyi

Pnrt Pe,..... Beni (name for twins)

'dm ..........Demba

Rs............. Rsa

This analogy between Keftiu and Manding names is startling.

In conclusion, the evidence of similarity between Keftiu names and names from the Manding languages appear to support Graves view that the Eteocretans, who early settled Crete may have spoken a language similar to the Mande people who live near the Niger. Conseqently, there is every possibility that the Linear A script used by the Keftiu, which is analogous to the Libyco Berber writing used by the Proto-Mande .This is further support to Cambell-Dunn' s hypothesis that the Minoans spoke a Niger-Congo language.

In addition, because the Keftiu were Africans, the haplogroups carried by the Minoans would have been African haplogroups. 
As a result, when we find mtDNA U,T,N1 and K among the Anatolians, it was just a reflection of the Blacks/Kushites that dominated Anatolia


Consequently, when we find that the Minoans carried haplogroups H (43.2%), T (18.9%), K (16.2%) and I (8.1%). Haplogroups U5a, W, J2, U, X and J were each identified in a single individual. The results correspond to the Anatolian mtDNA.

The Mande speakers, include the Djola and Mandekan of the geneticist carry 2% Eurasian admixture. The people in Mali carry the N and H haplogroups.
The highest concentration of U5 is found among Berbers in NWA . It is also carried by Mande spekers and Fulani in West Africa . The Djola, Mande speakers also carry mtDNA M1, H and N. See Alexandra Rosa, et al, MtDNA Profile of West Africa Guineans: Towards a Better Understanding of the Senegambia,

The U5 haplogroup carried by the Mande, like other SSWA is characterized by 16189,16192,16270 and 16320.

The presence of hg U5, M1, N and H among the Mande speakers supports the linguistic evidence concerning the Keftiu.

The Y-chromosomes of Cretans also indicate the Cretans were Blacks Laisel Martinez et al , Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau, Eur J Hum Genet. 2007 provides a detailed discussion of the y-chromosomes in Crete.
The presence of y-chromosomes R1b, T, K and H in Crete indicate that the Cretans were Black.


The genomic data from this period is important because the people of Abusir at this time would have been primarily Egyptian. As a result, the mtDNA carried by the Egyptians confirms the reality that the so-called Eurasian haplogroups are nothing more than African haplogroups.




In Schuenemann et al, 2017, there were 100 mummies in the study. A total of 27 mummies were dated between 992-749BC. In Figure 1, you can see the clades carried by these Egyptians. Below are the frequencies of the haplogroups among Egyptians at this time:

  • Haplogroup Frequency
    U 18.5
    T 22.2
    J 18.5
    X 0.0675
    M1a 0.0675
    H 0.0675
    I 0.0675
    HV 0.037
    RO 0.037
    K 0.037
    N 0.037

The presence of these haplogroups among the Abusir population shows that the U,T, and J clades had a high frequency among the Egyptians, and that many of the so called Middle East clades were already present in Lower Egypt before the Greco-Romans, Turks and etc. ruled Egypt.

As a result, the finding of mtDNA U,T,J and N clades, and the Y-Chromosome R1 among, Anatolians, Cretans and Lower Egyptians explains the close relationship between the Minoans,and Anatolians. All of these people were Khas=Kushites, who had come from Upper Egypt and the Fezzan.